“ … he however opened the way
of the art of engraving in the large scale ”
Here then his
Saint Hubert of 1573
Cort, Cornelis (Hoorn 1533 – Rome 1578). St. Hubert. The South Netherlandish “Wild Hunter” as after Döbel father of the par force hunting and correspondingly with bugle on his back and the hunting-knife with griffin pommel at the side in kneeling position of humility – unlike with Dürer then also uncovered – before the stag standing above him on a rock nose. Behind him, just stepping out of the forest yet, his horse and two hounds. Set back in the middle distance his mountain citadel above a further property. In the air flight of birds, among which to their flying figure supposedly the two swans appearing also otherwise (so for instance 1614 with de Bruyn) as the prophesying birds of mythology and a heron. Engraving with etching after Girolamo Muziano (Acquafredda near Brescia 1528/32 – Rome 1592). Inscribed: in the subject lower right HIERONYMO MVCIANI INVE(N). / Corneli cort. fe. / 1573 + in the lower platemark In Roma presso Carlo Losi l’anno 1774. 20½ × 15⅜ in (52 × 39.2 cm).
Schlieker, (The Worship of Saint Hubert in the Change of the Centuries), 2016, ills. 17/41 (incompletely as „Corneille“ and in ignorance of the exact date). - Not among the 172 illustrations of the – compared with the first edition of 1927 – richly enlarged second one of Huyghebaert’s Sint Hubertus Patroon van de Jagers in Woord en Beeld, Antwerp ( sic ! ) 1949.
From the set of the Seven Large Landscapes with saints
– “ masterpieces and rarely in good impressions ” –
(Nagler 1836), “known under the name of the penitent”, worked “at the personal request of Muziano … with C. not being concerned with the publication any further …
doubtless his most popular and most frequently published engravings ”
(AKL 1999), here then in Losi’s evenly fine impression to whom are owed from the 1770s yet further new editions of the 16th century, with invariably fine differentiated setting off of the background from the event which of the foreground and yet not cleaned right platemark. – On strong laid paper with twice enclosed watermark Fleur-de-lis in circle with pendant V, related to the group Heawood 1589 ff. as throughout Italian papers of the 16th to late 18th centuries. – Margins above + left 2.4 cm, below + right 0.6-1 cm wide. The smoothed centerfold only feebly perceptible in the subject’s center, likewise almost only on the back a trifling foxspottedness. Minimal pressure mark below the castle. In such a manner of all-round fine general impression as frequently searched for in vain with these large formats of old prints, furthermore standing for Cort’s fame beginning with the arrival 1565 at Tizian’s in Venice.
“ All (his) mentioned early (Dutch) works … are rather anxious in the stroke of lines … and barely foreshadow
the excellent artist who in Italy short time later
– comparable to Girard Audran 100 years later: “Before his departure to Rome in 1666 (only) few works … are worth mentioning … far from the pictorial and grandiose effect of the ‘Batailles d’Alexandre’ … One can hardly imagine more beautiful engravings”, Thieme-Becker II (1908), 239 –
created his works exemplary for a whole generation of engravers .
But C. already must have enjoyed a significant reputation … otherwise Tizian hardly would have entrusted him with the reproduction of his most important works (the paintings for the emperor; recte this was, as documented by AKL, recommended to him by Lampsonius [see below]) and employed the engraver for about a year exclusively for himself. Before he got acquainted with C. Tizian had his works reproduced mostly in woodcut … The engravings C. now worked for Tizian
the master have valued particularly ;
for he sent copies of them to his mighty patrons, in the expectation to keep alive by this the interest at his art in a proper manner …
The sudden turn to the grandiose in the style of C.
during his stay in Venice thus can be attributed to Tizian’s personal influence, who by this also has the merit to have co-caused
the new epoch of the Italian engraving induced in the following by C.
… The result Tizian had hoped for from C.’s engravings was not long in coming; we have as evidence for this the enthusiastic letter of Lampsonius (Dominique L., poet & art writer, “already in his lifetime he enjoyed the reputation of being one of the best humanists of the Low Countries”, Thieme-Becker XXII, 277) … to Tizian on the 6 engravings (by Cort) he had seen at the prince-bishop’s of Liège. Lampsonius asks Tizian to obtain impressions of the engravings for him, too, and praises C.’s sheets for
the bold and brisk line , especially in the treatment of the landscape
… (since March 1567) C. had gained great popularity in Rome due to the virtues of his art … C. became the preferred engraver of the two Zuccari … then of (then also present here)
Muziano who stirred a great sensation in Rome then
(and 1571/72 he worked in Tizian’s house again) … The influence C. had on the Italian engraving of the 2nd half of the 16th century is not examined in detail yet. It is certain that only Goltzius again furthered the development of the technique of engraving by another step and that up to his appearance
C. could maintain indisputably
the fame of being the first engraver in the world
… C.’s engravings must have achieved a great propagation for the most were published subsequently by several publishers … ”
(L. Burchard 1912 in Thieme-Becker VII, 475 ff.).
Then 1975 Hans Mielke in the Berlin Bruegel Catalog :
“ … who by development of the waist-practice (letting the individual line swell in the shadow parts) becomes a pioneer for the practice of engraving. ”
And 1999 Manfred Sellink in Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon :
“ It is characteristic for the œuvre created in Italy that C. knows to achieve by the linear engraving technique a distinct painterly effect in grey tones. Presumably Tizian, in view of C.’s capabilities as engraver, has effected a singular privilege in Venice in 1567 according to which every print was protected for fifteen years … The technical skill and the ability to reproduce the paintings of varied masters graphically convincing earn C. lifelong appreciation as one of the best engravers of his time – (his skill already praised by the expert and artist biographer Karel van Mander as contemporary in his “Didactic Poem” [about 1600]) … In the manner of formation and (engraving) technique C. has exerted lasting influence of which not only the more than 500 copies after his prints give evidence, but also the fact that in Rome a whole generation of engravers, far into the 17th century, has worked in his manner. ”
But already 1858 Nagler had stated to the point in the dictionary of Monogramists (I, 2382) by the words
“ marked an epoch in Rome for he united virtues within himself
which other praised artists of his time lack ”.
Here then after Muziano to whose “great delicacy and strong sense for nature” in the subject of landscape Thieme-Becker (XXV, 1931, p. 304) refer to. He himself had continued his studies “in Venice under the influence of Tizian, and since c. 1548 in Rome under that of Michelangelo”. And adequately he requested the hand of Cort for the reproduction of his Seven Large Landscapes, from which set the St. Hubert stands out as primus inter pares. As
first graphic Hubert of wall-fitting large format .
For “Up to the age of C. Cort one had worked almost merely on a small scale, he however opened the way of the art of engraving in the large scale, that is he had discovered new ways for the art and done new steps towards perfection. He engraved a great many fine sheets which are the delight of the connoisseurs, and please for the taste, for their fine effect and the correctness of the drawing” (Nagler).
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